A complicated system of proteins called the Elongator, which is crucial for the proper production of proteins in multicellular organisms, has been described by members of an international research team, including scientists from Kraków.
Scientists from the Polish Academy of Sciences have developed a key for identifying the talons of diurnal birds of prey and owls. They presented it in the International Journal of Osteoarchaeol. Their tool can be helpful during the study of bird remains found at archaeological sites.
Not only delicious fruits, but also appetizing leaves sometimes 'advertise' certain species of plants to animals so that they carry their seeds. The old hypothesis that 'foliage is the fruit' was first tested by an international team of researchers who examined elk droppings. It turned out that nettle was one of the plants that evolutionarily adapted to be spread by ruminants.
Scientists from Poland, Germany and the US examined the unusual-looking bones of prehistoric marine reptiles from a site near Winterswijk in the Netherlands. According to the researchers, the record of pathologies such as diseases and injuries can provide insight into the functioning of healthy individuals from 250 million years ago.
Malignant tumours, sometimes considered to be diseases related to environmental pollution, also affected prehistoric animals. A team led by a palaeontologist from the University of Silesia described the results of research on vertebral cancer of a Triassic amphibian discovered in Krasiejów near Opole.